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representations to the Governor-General of Fars, and waV
debarred from approaching Teheran.
Malcolm, justly incensed at the affront offered in his
person to the Honourable East India Company, returned
to India and urged that the island of Kharak should be
occupied by Indian troops. This proposal was, after some
consideration, accepted by Lord Minto ; but just when
the troops were about to sail it became clear from the
situation in Europe that France could not possibly spare
an army for Persia, and the expedition was therefore
The Mission of Sir Harford Jones, 1808-1809.óBritish
policy has ever been proverbially fortunate, and when, in
the autumn of the same year, Sir Harford Jones appeared
on the scene after the retirement of Malcolm, and pro-
ceeded in the pompous language of the period " to throw
the aegis of the British Crown over the imperilled destinies
of India," a reaction against the French had set in at
Teheran. The Persians realized that General Gardanne
had promised more than he could perform ; he had, in
fact, overplayed his part. Jones pointed out that good
offices were not sufficient to bind the hands of Russia,
and when he proposed a British alliance, together with an
annual subsidy of tomans 160,000 (j£ 120,000) so long as
Great Britain continued to be at war with Russia, and the
services of British officers to train the Persian army, Fath
Ali Shah agreed to give General Gardanne his passports.
The British envoy, who had brought as a gift from
George III. a fine diamond which excited the Shah's
covetousness, was accorded a magnificent reception. Under
these favourable conditions there were no delays, and
in March, 1809, a preliminary treaty was negotiated, the
terms of which were approved by both the Home and
the Indian Governments, and formed the basis of the
definitive treaty that was finally concluded.
As might be supposed, the action of Sir Harford
Jones, who was subordinate to the Governor-General,
caused no little friction. Indeed so strained did his
relations with India become that Lord Minto ordered
the suspension of his functions, and his bills were pro-